Design Choice of SAMPL - Written After the First Alpha Release



Starting from May 21, after I finished the algo final at Cornell, I started to develop my own programming language SAMPL. I decide to design a new language for a while, because I was frustrated by the ugliness of OCaml's namespace but miss its nice functional features. The exact name of the language was not chosen with much deliberation: I just want the name to contain a substring SAM.

As soon as I started to design the language, I realized that I need to clearly specify the scope of this project. In other words, I need to answer following questions before even writing a single line of code:

  • Do I implement an interpreter or a compiler for this language? Or both?
  • If I decide to implement a compiler, what's the target code? JVM or native?
  • How should the syntax of the language look like?
  • What are the supported advanced features? Generics? Module system? Type inference?

I don't have the exact answer when I started, because I want to play with the technology I will use. I chose Kotlin as the implementation language due to its elegance in both OOP and FP. I chose ANTLR as the parser generator because its grammar specification file's syntax was very easy to understand and work with. Also, ANTLR has good IDE support.

Design Choices

Syntax Design

Without much thought, I started the language with an OCaml-like syntax, because according to my imagination it should be semantically similar to OCaml. Therefore, if you read the early history of the grammar specification, you can see a list of familiar keywords: module, type, let, match, with, etc.

During the early stages, the exact syntax of the language frequently changes. I'm a newbie of language design, so I was unaware of many tricky issues of lexing and parsing. For example, I chose >> as the shift-right operator at first, but when I read ANTLR's tutorial on context-sensitive lexing, I found that things can get bad when we have this type List<List<T>>: the final >> will be understood as an operator and a legal program will be incorrectly rejected by the parser. I want to support generics well, and I don't want to introduce context-sensitive parsing to overly complicate this project, so I later changed the operator to Kotlin's shr.

Starting from this moment, the syntax of the language becomes more and more familiar to Kotlin, and the syntax design goal has become: to have a Kotlin-like syntax but an OCaml-like semantics. Later, module is renamed to class; type declaration is done in a way similar to Kotlin's constructor; function declaration uses commas to separate arguments; function application needs parenthesis; generics use < and > instead of OCaml's 'a; semicolon is used instead of in. The design principle is similar to Facebook's Reason: write OCaml code in JS way.

Type Inference and Type Checking

It wasn't hard to realize that if we don't require type inference on functions, then type inference was almost trivial to implement: a simple environment model will do the job. In addition, we have a good reason to explicitly specify types of functions at the top level.

function confusing(g, x, y) {
return g(g([x, y]))
function notConfusing<A, B>(g: (tuple: [A, B]) => [A, B], x: A, y: B): [A, B] {
return g(g([x, y]))

If you take a look at the code below, you may find the first one very confusing. Can you tell what is the type of g without thinking too much? Do you want to run a type inference algorithm in your head each time you read someone else's not-type-annotated code?

With this justification, I decide that all functions defined in class level must be type annotated. Since it's still in prototype and I want to simplify the design, types of arguments for local functions must also be specified. Now, I can do type inference and type checking simply with the environment model.

The environment model itself was not hard to deal with, but as I was gradually implementing the type-checker, I decided that I wanted to support generics, classes, and private/public modifier all at once. Classes and access modifiers were relatively easy to implement, although they need some careful thought.

Generics are notoriously hard to deal with because you need to keep track of an additional list of information for type, which may be empty, a concrete definition like List<String> or just a parameter like Set<T>. To make it worse, I decided that the target code should be able to run on the type-erased JVM. I know at least on Java and Kotlin, polymorphic values are not allowed. In TypeScript, the missing generics type will be silently treated as any. For example:

function test() {
const anyList = []; // type: any[]
const stringList1: string[] = []; // type: string[]
const stringList2 = new Array<string>(); // type: string[]

In the end, I decided to forbidden polymorphic type, although I thought it was possible to simulate that by manually doing type erasure. The goal is to simplify the design in the first prototype. In this way, each expression has a type that is fixed at any moment! However, since throw is an expression in my language, we have to introduce this ugly syntax:

if true then "hi" else throw<String> "bad"

I hope I can improve this when I'm ready to introduce subtyping and use Kotlin's idea of the Nothing type to prettify the syntax.

Code Generation and Compilation

After I finished type checking, I moved to the actual compiler part. At this stage the syntax of the language is almost fixed: it looks pretty similar to Kotlin. Initially, I thought it may be a good idea to make it compile to Java code, but a transpilation to Kotlin code seems more elegant:

  • Keyword when in Kotlin corresponds closely to pattern matching.
  • Inline function run in Kotlin can be used to implement nested let expression.
  • Lambdas in Kotlin are almost the same as functions in my language, except that I had to hack the currying feature by myself.
  • Data class and sealed class in Kotlin can be used to implement struct and variant easily.

With such compelling reasons, I decide to change the target code to Kotlin. It also has a good reason: the generated code can work pretty well with a Kotlin code base.

Kotlin supports both OOP and FP well, so should I use visitor pattern or simply pattern matching? Although I dislike visitor pattern for its verbose syntax, I eventually chose it because pattern matching can easily produce a giant method of several hundred lines with ugly indentation limited by the 100-characters limit.

This step is quite straightforward thanks to the excellent FP support in Kotlin.

Runtime Injection and Interpretation

After the compiler part is done, the language can be considered as finished (if no bugs exist). However, it just can't do anything useful. I/O is not part of the language grammar. Without I/O, although the language has various advanced features, it's NOT Turing complete because it can't even read in a Turing Machine specification. Thus, runtime is clearly necessary.

It turns out that runtime injection can be done elegantly by reflection. I decide to use the annotation based scanning to automatically find functions that are declared to be a runtime function. For the compiler part, I can simply emit an import line with the fully qualified name for the function's class. For the interpreter part, it can be invoked by reflection, although it is costly.

Since the type system is sound (if the provided runtime library does not use any unsound features on JVM platform), we do not need type information for interpretation. Therefore, the interpretation part is quite easy and I finished it in two nights.


It's almost the end of this blog post, but it's only the beginning of this young language. The test coverage right now is very poor and I expect to see a lot of bugs. Before I'm able to fix these bugs, I don't plan to add any complex new features.

In the next few days, I will try to write a Turing Machine simulator in this language to prove it's Turing complete and use that complex program to test various part of the language design.

There will be no big structural change in near future (which roughly translates to "this year"), so the design will be stable for a while. Therefore, I think it is now possible to openly invite you to participate in this project and learn some nice programming language thing. Hope to see you on forks, pull requests or even contributors!